MASADA

March 25, 2008

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the-preservation-and-destruction-of-evidence.doc

PARTHENON MARBLES BATTLE

March 5, 2008

1. The Parthenon was built in honour of which ancient Greek goddess?

The Parthenon was built in honour to the Greek goddess Athena.

 

2. Where on the Parthenon is the marble frieze located?

On the Parthenon the marble frieze is located at the band of the Parthenon above the columns.

 

3. When and how did the Parthenon come to lie in ruins?

In 1687, it was blown up during a war between Venice and the Ottoman Empire which was then occupying Greece.

 

4. Who was Lord Elgin and what did he do with sections of the frieze?

Lord Elgin, the British ambassador to the Ottoman Empire received what he construed as permission to remove the marble friezes and take them home to England.

 

5. Why do some claim Elgin was the ‘vandal’?

To his detractors, Lord Elgin himself was the ‘vandal’. He cut up the frieze into sections so they can be shipped more easily to England.

 

6. Why does the British Museum (BM) claim title to the frieze?

The British Museum has legal title to the marbles. moreover, it has a mission as a museum of all world cultures. The British Museum can unqiuely provide is an opportunity to see the Parthenon sculptures in context to civilizations that flourished around the times of ancient Greece.

 

7. How much of the original frieze still stands in Athens?

Approximately, 50% of the original frieze that survived today and of that 50% about of that are in London and the other half in Athens.

 

8. What is the opinion of Greeh archaeologists on the matter?

The frieze itself depicts an important Athenian religious procession. They believe all the surviving pieces should be exhibited together because seen together they have a narrative. it is not correct for pieces so important to have fragments in different places and not placed together to the original building.

 

9. How does the BM suggest they could resolve the ‘complicated situation’?

They intend to fill in the gaps of the Athenian frieze with copies of the British museum’s frieze so the visitors can have a more complete vision of the procession that’s depicted. on the basis of an exchange, or for a friendly co-operation would be possible to get back the absolute pattern. The trustee’s fund of a loans policy for Greece could take place.

 

10. What is your stance on returning the frieze to Athens? Do you agree that it should remain permanently in the BM except for loan periods?

I believe that teh British should return the frieze to Athens because it has a strong historical legacy built for the Greek goddess Athena. It is not right that the British should keep the frieze because the frieze itself orginated from Athens. It is of great importance for Greece. I disagree with the fact that it should remain permanently in the BM except for loan periods because what is it to money then to have something of great importance for Greece.

 

1. Where is Machu Picchu?

Machu Picchu is located between soaring mountains in the lush green highlands of Peru.

 

2. The sits was left to ruin in the 16 century until 1911.

 

3. Who discovered the site and when?

In 1911, Explorer and Yale Professor, Hiran Bingham came upon the ‘lost’ city of Machu Picchu.

 

4. For which university was he working?

Hiram Bingham worked for Yale University.

 

5. What did he find?

Hiram Bingham discovered thousands of silver statues, jewelry and human remains.

 

6. In which museum are the find located?

The historical finds are located at Yale’s Peabody Museum.

 

7. What is the debate surrounding these finds?

The Peruvian Government believes that all the pieces belong to the Republic of Peru and to its people. These pieces located at Yale’s Peabody Museum originated from Peru and have the to Peru to own the pieces. As a result, the Peruvian Government strongly believe that the Museum have the right to own the pieces.

 

8. Why the legal action?

Yale felt otherwise of returning the artifacts but Peru was unrelenting and legal action proved imminent.

 

9. According to the spokesman from the Museum, why can there be problems if artifacts are returned too quickly?

There can have a number of problems if artifacts are returned too quickly. One thing is it not really honouring its duty to preserve and protect the objects in the collection. There could also be another claimant the next day and you could only give an object back once, so you got to be sure your giving it back to the right heir.

 

10. What has been the resolution of this ‘treasure war’ and why does this mean so much to the people of Peru?

Yale and the Government of Peru worked out a compromise. Yale agreed to return most of the objects following the completion of a travelling expedition co-sponsored by yale and the Peruvian Government. The artifacts mean so much to the people of Peru because it is a source of national pride for Peru and the Peruvian people would be the guardians of their own history.

 

 

 

 

1. What are the main types of sources?

The main types of sources are archaeological and written sources. Archaeological sources are the physical remains of past cultures. Written sources include any materials or objects that have been written on.

 

2. What kinds of questions need to be asked of archaeological sources?

The types of questions that need to be asked of archaeological sources are:

– What is it?

– In what matter was it found?

– Can it be accurately dated?

– How does its condition affect its interpretation?

– Is it reliable and / or useful in providing evidence about the past?

– What evidence does this source provide about the past?

 

3. Do these questions differ from the questions asked of written sources? Why?

Yes, these questions differ from the questions asked of written sources because archaeological sources are not subject to bias. Analysing written sources can reveal the writer’s perspective whereas archaeological sources reveal descriptions of an artifact when being asked questions on the sources.

 

4. What is meant by the saying that ‘historical writings reveal more about the author than the events or personalities being related’?

‘Historical writings reveal more about the author than the events or personalities being related/ ,eans that historical writings are mainlt based on the author’s perspective, so their analysis may eother be true or false towards the content of reconstructing the past. It’s more about the historian being bias on one side, than the actual source.

 

5. Go online and find one example of an ancient written source and one ancient archaeological source. Analyse each one (hint: ask those questions!)

 

Ancient Written Source – The Rosetta Stone is an Ancient Egyptian artifact, instrumental in advancing modern understanding of hieroglyphic writing. The Stone is a Ptolemaic era stele with carved text. The text is made up of three scripts, hieroglyphic (an ancient Egyptian script using symbols), demotic (a simplified Egyptian script used for everyday writing), and Greek (the langauge introduced after the conquest of Egypt by Alexander the Great). It was created in 196 BC, discovered by the French in 1799 at Rosetta, a harbor on the Mediterranean coast in Egypt, and contributed greatly to the decipherment of principles of hieroglyphic writing in 1822 by the French scholar Jean-Francois Champollion. The text of the Rosetta Stone is a decree from Ptolemy V, describing the repealing of various taxes and instructions to erect statues in temples. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rosetta_Stone

 

Ancient Archaeological Source – The 2000 Year old bronze Iron Age Chain is an artifact discovered during work in Scatness. The chain, with 20 double links and the reemains of possibly the clasp, was recovered from a roundhouse wall by the Shetland Amenity Trust. The chain is described as extremely well preserved and adds to the jewelry and other metal artifacts found at the site. Shetland Archaeologist Wal Turner said: “This discovery is quite rare”. (BBC)